FULL REPORT

Temperate Fish









Lead Author: 

David J Booth 1

Co Authors: Will Figueira 2, Greg Jenkins 3 and Rod Lenanton 4

Download this report in PDF format: Click here

What is happening?

Additional evidence and reviews confirm previous reports of southward range extensions for many coastal temperate fishes.

What is expected?

Reduced freshwater flows are likely to have negative effects on estuarine dependent species, such as bream, and adaptation in relation to water flow management may be needed.

What we are doing about it?

There is ongoing experimental and observational work to understand the environmental tolerances and hence adaptive capacity of temperate fishes.

Summary

Since the first report card, little on-the-ground research on range shifts of temperate fishes has been reported. Several reviews of range shifts of Australian coastal fishes (Booth et al 2011 and Madin et al. 2012) have highlighted approaches for collecting and applying the data. Research in Western Australia (e.g. Langlois et al 2010, Cheung et al. 2011) has shown that many species of groundfish and reef fish are distributed latitudinally based on clear water temperature gradients, suggesting that climate-change SST increases/differences will significantly affect ranges. Langlois et al. 2010 conclude that “the old climatically buffered, oligotrophic seascape of south-western Australia has provided a simple system in which the consistent influence of physiological gradients on the abundance and distribution of fish species can be observed".

Little new evidence of effects of any other climate change stressors (eg Ocean acidification, sea level rise etc.) has appeared in the last 3 years since the 2009 report, however confidence in climate change- effects on temperate fish ranges has grown. Recent work on the influence of freshwater input on black bream has shown that recruitment is dependent on intermediate flows and well developed stratification in Gippsland Lakes (Jenkins et al. 2010). The future climate change scenario of reduced freshwater flows is likely to have a negative effect on bream, and adaptation in relation to water flow management may be needed. The effect of climate change on estuarine fish in Australia has recently been reviewed by Gillanders et al. (2011)

We note with concern that some fishery status reports (e.g., Rowling et al. 2010) are still not considering climate change as an issue of significance.

Citation: Booth, D.J. et al. (2012) Temperate Fish. In A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2012 (Eds. E.S. Poloczanska, A.J. Hobday and A.J. Richardson). Retrieved from www.oceanclimatechange.org.au [Date]

Contact Details: 
1 School of the Environment, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123 Broadway NSW 2007, Australia. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
2 Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, School of Biological Sciences Marine Ecology Laboratories, A11 University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
3 Fisheries Research Branch, Fisheries Victoria, P.O. Box 114, Queenscliff 3225, Australia, and Department of Zoology, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
4 Western Australian Fisheries & Marine Research Laboratories, Department of Fisheries, PO Box 20 North Beach, WA 6920, Australia

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Authors

David Booth

Booth temperate fish photocrop

David Booth is Professor of Marine Ecology at University of Technology, Sydney, and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee, Sydney Institute of...
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Rod Lenanton

Lenanton

Dr Rod Lenanton as Senior Principal Research Scientist for the Western Australian Fisheries Department, with more than 47 years experience in the...
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Greg Jenkins

Jenkins

Greg is the manager of the fish ecology program at the Fisheries Research Branch, Department of Primary Industries Victoria, and Professorial Fellow...
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Will Figueira

Will figueira thumb

Dr Will Figueira is a senior lecturer in Marine Animal Biology with the University of Sydney. He obtained his BSc in 1993 (University of California)...
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Scientific Review:

Temperate fish assemblages in Australia comprise those in shallow marine waters (< 100m), including demersal (bottom-dwelling), estuarine and diadromous species from 23°S southward on each coast. Over 3500 marine temperate species in a huge range of families fit this profile in Australia, some of tropical origin (Kuiter 2000). Many form the backbone of our commercial and recreational fishing industries (worth $600 million annually to Australia: ABS 2008; see Table 1). Numerous species are relatively sedentary as adults but significant numbers move inshore/offshore or longshore periodically. Most have pelagic larvae that may disperse in the oceanic or nearshore environment. Some, such as Grey Nurse Sharks in south-east Australia, are regarded on threatened species lists as critically endangered (Otway et al. 2004). Habitats used by coastal and demersal fish are varied, including rocky reefs (differing latitudinally: Underwood et al. 1991), estuaries (with seagrass, soft-bottom, rocky or mangrove habitats), mud and sand bottoms. Key fisheries status reports (e.g., Status of fisheries resources in NSW 2008/09, Rowling et al. 2010) rarely consider climate change broadly in their assessments although it has been considered for individual fisheries (e.g., Ives et al. 2009).

Key environmental stressors that affect coastal temperate fish distributions and species dynamics within their range include sea temperature, habitat and food availability, ocean currents, and in the case of species that occupy estuaries, freshwater input. Most of these factors are directly or indirectly linked to climate change. Biological responses to these environmental stressors may include range shifts, contraction or expansions (Madin et al., 2012), shifts in productivity (eg growth, biomass), reproduction, or alterations to community dynamics. It is important to note that other stressors such as habitat damage, fishing pressure and invasive species will interact with these climate-change related stressors in complex and not necessarily additive ways.

Here our aim is to summarise recent evidence that temperate fish species are responding to climate-change related environmental variables, and to indicate both which of these variables are most important and the degree to which they may lead to changes in temperate fish assemblages throughout the remainder of this century.

Multiple stressors

Climate change impacts and also adaptive responses will depend on interactions with other key stressors. Overfishing for example has affected some taxa in southern Australia, through direct effects on overall abundance, size-selective removals (especially important for sex-changing species) and general habitat degradation (especially with trawling). In coastal areas, a range of human disturbance activities (e.g., riverbank disturbance increasing sedimentation and acid sulphate soils, estuary dredging effects on fish nurseries) can exacerbate any negative climate-change effects on fishes. On the other hand, establishment of a series of Marine Protected Areas around Australia over particularly the last decade has reduced the rate of change of human disturbances (particularly fishing, but indirectly activities such as land clearing, pollution in estuaries/catchments etc.)

Fishing

Status of Fishing (NSW) report was published in 2010, which indicated that 11 of 108 harvested fisheries are now considered overfished (including recruitment and growth overfished stocks); with another 34 fully fished while the status of 54 species is unknown. And this is without good data on the recreational catch, which is significant particularly for estuarine top predators. Removals of larger or faster growing individuals (that may be more able to withstand climate stresses) by fishing may indicate an additive effect of fishing on climate change impacts.

Land-borne pollution

Nutrients, sediments and toxins that originate within catchments as a consequence of urbanisation, agriculture and land-clearing represent a major threat to coastal ecosystems. NSW estuaries are particularly sensitive to nutrient pollution as a consequence of their naturally oligotrophic status and their morphology (Scanes et al. 2007). Chemical contaminants from urban and industrial activities are released into estuaries and accumulate in benthic sediments (Birch 2000), that are resuspended by physical disturbance from shipping, dredging and storms (Eggleton & Thomas 2004; Hedge et al. 2009). This anthropogenic contamination of coastal waters can have effects on fish especially as it impacts critical estuarine habitats which are characterized by limited flushing (McKinley et al. 2011) This coastal pollution appears to be much less of a problem for open coastal habitats, which are reasonably well flushed (Dafforn unpublished data).

Removal of seagrass beds

Recent studies have noted that seagrass beds are not only important for fish stocks in temperate waters but are a major source of carbon storage (“blue carbon”: Duarte et al. 2010), and may act as a natural buffer for climate stress. Removal of seagrass beds in the face of dredging or construction, and also loss through climate change, may exacerbate climate stresses on associated fishes.


Observed Impacts:



Ocean temperature

Sea surface temperatures (SST) have been shown to have risen ~2°C off Australia’s SE coast since 1925, with interannual variation in extremes also increasing (Figure 1: Figueira and Booth 2009). Similar changes are likely to have occurred in SW Australia via the Leeuwin current (e.g., Hutchins and Pierce 1994) although increase in SST off the West Coast is thought not to be related to a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current, with declines in the frequency of strong Leeuwin Currents over time. Rather, it is suggested that the more likely mechanism is air-sea heat flux into the southern Indian Ocean (Pearce and Feng 2007; Caputi et al. 2009).


Since fishes (and their food) are ectotherms, key metabolic processes such as respiration, activity level, growth and reproductive development are linked to water temperature. Scope for larval dispersal has presumably increased for warm-water species, and possibly cold-water species, since swim speeds are increased, although this is possibly countered by shorter pelagic larval durations (O’Connor et al. 2007).


Several recent studies in Western Australia, while not actually documenting range shifts of temperate fishes, have shown water temperature to be the key variable in determining demersal fish ranges and predicted poleward shifts due to climate change. Langlois et al. (2010) sampled nearshore demersal fish habitat extending 1500 km along the coast of south-western Australia.  Baited Remote Underwater video surveys indicated that 19 of the 20 most common demersal fish species at 20-70m depth were distributed according to winter water temperatures (range, relative abundance). Fifteen species exhibiting unimodal abundance distributions, four had ramped distribution to one end of the sampled range and one showing no consistent pattern.  They noted that the old, climatically buffered, oligotrophic seascape of south-western Australia has provided a simple system in which the consistent influence of physiological gradients on the abundance distribution of fish species can be observed.


Cheung et al (2012) used a Dynamic Bioclimate Envelope Model to project range shift of exploited marine fishes and invertebrates in Western Australia. They used published data and expert knowledge to predict current species distributions for 30 tropical, sub-tropical and temperate species that occur along the coast of Western Australia, then simulated change in the distribution of each species using outputs from both a Regional Oceanographic Model and a Global Circulation Model.  Under the SRES (Special Report for Emission Scenarios) A1B scenario, the median rate of distribution shift was around 19 km decade-1 towards higher latitude and 9 m deeper per decade by 2055 relative to 2005. As a result, species gains along the south coast, and losses along the north coast are expected in Western Australia. Also, the coast of Western Australia is expected to experience a ‘tropicalisation’ of the marine community in the future, with increasing dominance of warmer-water species.


Despite wide assumptions of unimodal latitudinal gradients in key climate-change stressors such as SST, a recent study by Lima and Wethey (2012) on worldwide coasts worldwide suggests unpredictable changes interannually and non linear gradients spatially.


pH and aragonite saturation state

Recent research has demonstrated the effects of elevated seawater CO2 concentrations on the larval development and behaviour of tropical fishes (e.g., Munday et al. 2009 and Baumann et al. 2012). In particular, it has been demonstrated that pH can affect chemical cueing (Munday et al. 2009) and thus larval behaviour during dispersal may be negatively affected at declines of as little as 0.3 pH points. Where cueing for orientation and settlement is impaired, recruitment may be reduced and overall realized connectivity patterns altered.  However, no such effects have yet been demonstrated for Australian temperate fishes though it is possible that pH effects on calcification of shells of prey (e.g., molluscs for sparids) may have an impact.


Sea- level rise

Sea-level rise is likely to have strong indirect effects on temperate fish production. Key estuarine habitats (mangroves, seagrass, saltmarsh) are all responding to climate-change induced sea-level rise. Mangrove stands are increasing in area at the expense of saltmarsh in SE Australia and key saltmarsh habitats are shrinking (Saintilan and Williams 2005). Saltmarsh is a nursery for crab zoea (larvae) production so in turn acts as a key food source for estuarine fishes (Mazumder et al. 2006). Sea-level rise due to climate change may impact coastal habitats important as breeding or nursery areas. Commercial species that use coastal habitats include pink snapper (Pagurus auratus), southern sea garfish (Hyporhamphus melanochir), Australian herring (Arripis georgianus), whiting and mullet (Fletcher and Head 2006).  No new data have appeared in the literature since the 2009 Report Card to refine our understanding of impacts.


Ocean currents, circulation and mixed layer depth

Climate change is predicted to enhance the strength, annual duration and southward extent of Boundary Currents (East Australian Current [EAC], Leeuwin Current) and associated eddies (Ridgeway 2007). The position of the Tasman front will shift southward (Ridgeway 2007). Although the EAC is offshore, it will affect coastal temperate fishes through changes to larval dispersal which can affect settlement to adult habitat. Larval connectivity longshore will be enhanced for species advecting using EAC waters (i.e., north to south) [this also applies to floating eggs]. For instance, Lenanton and others (Lenanton et al. 1991) have considered the effects of the Leeuwin Current on recruitment strength (related to fisheries catch) of a range of species. Australian Salmon (Arripis trutta) recruitment strength was directly related to Leeuwin current flow, especially in the range-edge SA stock (Lenanton et al. 1991, Lenanton et al. in press). Leeuwin current was also shown to directly affect catchability in the south-coast fishery (Lenanton et al. 1991; Caputi et al. 1996). For Australian Pilchard, (Sardinops sagax) strength of the Leeuwin Current positively related to winter egg transport eastward and abundance of 2+ recruits in the Albany WA fishery, although this was masked by mass mortalities of adults in 1995, 1998/99 (Lenanton et al. 1991; Fletcher et al. 1994; Caputi et al. 1996). However, Leeuwin current strength was only weakly (r2= 0.29) related to Whitebait (Hyperlophus vittatus) recruitment, and not related at all to Dhufish (Glaucosoma hebraicum) or Tailor (Pomatomus saltatrix) recruitment (Gauhan et al. 1996; Caputi et al. 1996; Lenanton et al. in press).


Despite dispersal of tropical reef fish larvae into SE Australia clearly relating to general EAC strength (peak settlement January-April coinciding with maximum EAC flow), individual EAC incursions to the coast were generally unrelated to pulses in settlement, although several direct instances were noted (Booth et al. 2007).


Gaughan (2007) claimed that the Leeuwin Current system most likely contributes a net negative impact on success of shelf teleost eggs and larvae. Larvae of shelf teleosts entrained and trapped in the warm-core (WC) eddies that form from the Leeuwin Current and then propagate offshore, would contribute little to recruitment. Given that larval teleosts predominantly feed on copepods and that these were much less abundant in WC eddies than is typical of shelf waters, the general larval feeding conditions in the WC eddy were inferior to those on the shelf. Any larvae that escaped from the eddy, that were able to orientate towards the shelf and had sustained swimming capabilities, would incur significant energetic penalties when attempting to return to the shelf. Furthermore, flow of the Leeuwin Current onto the shelf could dilute the concentrations of phytoplankton and zooplankton, negatively impacting feeding conditions for larvae that remain on the shelf.


No new data bearing on the influence of change in ocean currents on Australian temperate marine fishes have appears since the 2009 Report Card.

Potential Impacts by the 2030s and 2100s: 


Potential impacts by 2030 (and/or 2100)

Key changes to the physical environment expected to occur for temperate marine fishes by 2030 will be slightly elevated SST, increased incidence of drought and reduced freshwater input to estuaries.


Ecological consequences most likely to be observed by 2030 are:


Southward extent of tropical species/range shifts; retraction of temperate fishes poleward

A combination of climate change impacts lead to establishment of new fish species at southern latitudes e.g., WA coastal fishes may establish/increase abundance in SA waters. For some estuarine species, key spawning locations move upstream, the result of a combination of lower freshwater inputs/higher salinity and increased estuarine temperatures. Greater southward larval advection and increased growth rates occur due to warming SST, and alteration to upwelling and onshore winds. Changes to boundary current strength (East Australian Current and Leeuwin Current) and warming SST are likely to enhance settlement and early survival of warm-water species, with the opposite for southern species.  Lima and Wethy (2012) show that shifts in response to temperature may not be predictable since assumed temperature gradients latitudinally may be inconsistent.


Effects on larval dispersal and settlement

The East Australian Current future scenarios indicate a strengthening of flow (combination of southern extension, duration and volume), which will enhance southern advection of tropical and warm temperate pelagic larvae, possibly at the expense of more-southern, temperate species.


Impacts on species reliant on estuarine freshwater inputs and habitats

Rainfall in SE Australia is generally expected to reduce over the next 20 years with implication for fish populations in coastal regions. For example, the projected reduction in spring rainfall in Victoria would negatively impact on fish species that depend on freshwater input for spawning or egg survival such as black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri: Nicholson et al. 2008, Jenkins et al. 2010). Reduction of seagrass habitat, which forms key nursery area for juveniles of certain species, is also expected.


2100

Key climate-changes effects by 2100 would be significant given projected SST rises of over 2°C and sea level inundations. These would include:


Range shifts and local extinctions

Establishment of previously-tropical species in southern waters (e.g., Figueira and Booth 2010) while some southern species become locally extinct in Australian waters or globally extinct. The future behaviour of the boundary currents will play a large role in range shifts of coastal fish species.


Losses of key estuarine and coastal fish habitats

Large-scale loss of saltmarsh and seagrass beds, key estuarine fish habitats, coupled with loss of connectivity as the habitats become disjointed, will affect coastal fish species. However mangroves, also a key estuarine fish habitat, may expand further south due to warming temperatures and sea level rise, and replace salt marsh areas in certain regions. Increased estuarine salinity may lead to the possible local extinction of species such as black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) on east coast.


Major impacts on Fisheries

Coastal shifts in centres of distribution of key fish species and retreat of southern species is expected down SE and SW coasts with major negative impacts on NSW and mixed impacts on WA fisheries.

Key Points: 


• North-south range shifts of temperate and tropical fish species due to warming sea surface temperature effects on species’ tolerances and ocean current changes linked to larval dispersal potential are occurring and will accelerate.
• There is some conflicting evidence of fish assemblage resilience in the face of climate-change, with a long-term study at Maria Island, Tasmania indicating little change over a decade. However, other reports suggesting numerous warmer-water species appearing recently off Tasmania.
• Range retractions of key commercial species such as Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri), and other southern species are likely.
• Not all range changes will be in a latitudinal direction. For instance, species such as pilchards (Sardinops sagax) are showing East/West range shifts along the South Australian coast, and depth distributions may also shift.
• Complex interactions are occurring and will occur between ENSO, winds, sea surface temperature, currents, and fish range shifts
• Sublethal effects of climate change will include effects of sea surface temperature on growth. The optimum latitude for growth will change but warmer waters are often inversely correlated with ocean productivity, hence fish food resources, so implications on fisheries productivity are unclear
• Strong interactive effects with changing habitat types, such as kelps, seagrasses and mangroves will be difficult to predict but likely to be at least as important as direct climate-change effects on temperate fishes.
• A strong potential exists for enhancement of warm-tolerant invasive taxa (e.g,, urchins) into southern coastal waters, with flow-on effects on fish assemblages
• Reduced freshwater flows may have consequences for reproduction and recruitment of estuarine fish species such as black bream and estuary perch

Confidence Assessments

Observed Impacts: 


Amount of Evidence (theory, observations, models)


Sea Surface Temperature: STRONG evidence
There is good evidence of SST warming and some solid key evidence of effects on overwintering of tropical species and enhanced growth rates of some taxa but less conclusive with respect to assemblage shifts. Given the strong links between fish physiology/production and temperature, we would expect SST links to fish biology to be strong. Robust evidence for latitudinal shifts that relate to SST


pH and aragonite saturation state:  NO evidence as yet in Australian temperate waters, but evidence from adjacent (tropical) systems and temperate systems elsewhere


Sea level rise: MEDIUM evidence
There is good evidence that sea-level rise has caused limited coastal zone inundation and good evidence for expansion of mangrove habitats and loss of saltmarsh as a result of sea-level rise, but no direct evidence of consequent effects on temperate fishes.

Ocean currents (East Australian Current, Leeuwin Current): MEDIUM evidence
There are apparent effects on the advection of species further south and limited evidence of shifts in key fisheries zones along southern coast (e.g. pilchards).  Predictions for Leeuwin current are highly uncertain, ranging between slight weakening and slight strengthening.  There is indirect evidence of appearance of recruits of more tropical species found more poleward presumably due to increased boundary currents.


Degree of Consensus (high level of statistical agreement, model confidence)

Temperature: HIGH


Atmospheric CO2: LOW


pH and aragonite saturation state: MODERATE TO LOW


Sea level rise: MODERATE TO LOW


Ocean current strengthening: MODERATE TO HIGH

Extreme events:
LOW

Confidence Level


Sea Surface Temperature:
HIGH There is strong evidence of SST rises in temperate coastal waters especially along east and west coasts.  More evidence is appearing of the key role of water temperature eon fish distributions and that species have shifted ranges in response to SST changes.

Atmospheric CO2
: VERY LOW No known studies of fish responses

pH and aragonite saturation state
: LOW Modelled changes in ocean CO2 in temperate Australia are scarce and no studies as yet on CO2/pH effects on Australian temperate fishes.


Sea level rise: LOW Indirect effects possible especially in estuarine species

Ocean current strengthening:
MODERATE TO HIGH Strong evidence of western boundary current (EAC) strengthening associated with climate change, less so for eastern boundary current (Leeuwin), and some anecdotal evidence of tropical recruits spreading poleward in some species.


Extreme events: LOW

Potential Impacts by the 2030s and 2100s: 


Confidence Assessment: Projected Impacts


Amount of Evidence (theory, observations, models)


Range shifts and local extinctions

Strong current evidence of influx of more tropical and warm temperate species into southern waters and strong evidence for current strength increase and poleward expansion give strong likelihood of latitudinal species shifts particularly in SE Australia where EAC behaviour is quite well understood. ROBUST evidence.

Losses of key estuarine and coastal fish habitats

Combined with projected increases in direct human impacts on seagrass health and extent in estuaries, CC stresses such as higher water temperatures, and ocean acidification are expected to impact negatively on seagrass beds, although projected sea level rise may benefit mangrove and seagrass systems (mangrove southern extent may also benefit from SST rises).  Incursions of Centrotephanus urchin barrens poleward with climate change in future will have a mixed effect, with some fish species preferring such habitats while outer kelp-dwellers will decline. MEDIUM evidence


Major impacts on Fisheries

Reduction in freshwater flow, higher SST and more storms in particular will have a strong negative effect on productivity of temperate fisheries in Australia. LOW-MEDIUM evidence

Degree of Consensus (high level of statistical agreement, model confidence)


Range shifts and local extinctions

MEDIUM consensus, nationwide rollouts of schemes such as Redmap will allow a more general assessment of range shifts to be made.
Losses of key estuarine and coastal fish habitats
MEDIUM consensus


Major impacts on Fisheries

Reduction in freshwater flow, higher SST and more storms in particular will have a strong negative effect on productivity of temperate fisheries in Australia. LOW-MEDIUM evidence

Confidence Level

Range shifts and local extinctions


MEDIUM confidence, MEDIUM-HIGH for SE Australia under EAC influence, LOW for SW Australia with vagaries of Leeuwin current and LOW-MEDIUM for S Coast.

Losses of key estuarine and coastal fish habitats
LOW-MEDIUM confidence


Major impacts on Fisheries

LOW-MEDIUM confidence overall, but MEDIUM confidence of negative impacts on fisheries in SE Australia.


Adaptation Responses

Observations

Several integrated platforms offer wide-ranging observations of the marine environment and fish distributions relative to climate change. Redmap (www.redmap.org.au) is a portal for citizen science observations of fish distributions to be made and synthesised. The Integrated Marine Observing System is an Australia-wide program lining ocean observations (www.imos.org.au) and several of its programs including the ocean moorings and the Australian Animal Tagging network will supply data relevant to patterns of temperate fish response to climate change


Current and planned research effort


Research efforts that will contribute to understanding temperate fish responses to climate change include:

• Ongoing vagrant tropical fish surveys and associated experiments on responses of fishes to elevated SST (Booth, Figueira, Feary, Beck pers comm)

• Ocean Acidification experiments at Pt Stephens Fisheries Centre, NSW to understand how larvae and fingerlings of key temperate species respond to synergistic water temp and CO2 changes (D. Booth, D. Feary pers comm).

• Ongoing investigation of freshwater flow effects on black bream and estuary perch across Victorian estuaries (G. Jenkins pers comm)

• Consolidation of temperate fish range observations through NCAARF and Redmap (Barrett, Pecl et al pers comm)


Further Information

NSW State Status of Fisheries: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/research/areas/systems-research/wild-fisheries/outputs/2010/1797
Australian Fisheries Management Authority: http://www.afma.gov.au/
WA Fisheries status reports: http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/docs/sof/2007/index.php?040
Australian Museum Fish fact sheets: http://www.australianmuseum.net.au/Fishes
Redmap: http://www.redmap.org.au/
Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS): http://imos.org.au/


References

NEW for 2012 edition:

Baumann, H, Talmage, S.C. and Gobler, C.J. (2012) Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide.  Nature Climate Change 2, 38–41 doi:10.1038/nclimate129
Birch, G.F. (2000). Marine pollution in Australia, with special emphasis on central New South Wales estuaries and adjacent continental margin. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 13, 573-607.
Booth, D.J., Bond, N. and Macreadie, P.M. (2011) Have there been range shifts for Australian fishes in response to climate change? Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1027–1042
Booth, D.J. and Parkinson, J. (2011) Pelagic larval duration is similar across 23 degrees of latitude for 2 species of butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) in Eastern Australia Coral Reefs 30:1071–1075 DOI 10.1007/s00338-011-0815-6
Caputi, N., Pearce, A. and Lenanton, R. (2010) Fisheries-dependent indicators of climate change in Western Australia WAMSI Sub-project 4.2.3. Fisheries Research Report No. 213. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 36pp.
Cheung, W.W.L., Feng, M., Harvey, E.S., Lam, V., Langlois, T.J., Meeuwig, J., Slawinski, D. and Pauly, D. (in press) Tropicalization of marine communities in Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research.
Duarte, C.M., Marbà, N., Gacia, E., Fourqurean, J.W., Beggins, J., Barrón, C. and. Apostolaki, E.T. (2010) Seagrass community metabolism: Assessing the carbon sink capacity of seagrass meadows, Global Biogeochemical Cycles 24: GB4032, doi:10.1029/2010GB003793.
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Gillanders, B.M., Elsdon, T.S., Halliday, I.A., Jenkins, G.P., Robins, J.B., and Valesini, F. J. (2011). Potential effects of climate change on Australian estuaries and fish utilising estuaries: A review. Marine and Freshwater Research 62, 1115-1131.
Hedge, L.H., Knott, N.A. and Johnston E.L. (2009). Dredging related metal bioaccumulation in oysters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 832-840.
Ives, M.C., Scandol, J.P., Montegomery, S.S. and Suthers, I.M. (2009). Modelling the possible effects of climate change on an Australian multi-fleet prawn fishery. Marine and Freshwater Research 60: 1211-1222.
Jenkins, G.P., Conron, S.D., and Morison, A.K. (2010). Highly variable recruitment in an estuarine fish is determined by salinity stratification and freshwater flow: implications of a changing climate. Marine Ecology Progress Series 417, 249-261.
Langlois, T.J., Radford, B.T., Van Niel, K.P., Meeuwig, J.J., Pearce, A.F., Rousseaux, C.S.G., Kendrick, G.A. and Harvey, E.S. (2011) Consistent abundance distributions of marine fishes in an old, climatically buffered, infertile seascape ..1Global Ecology and Biogeography DOI: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2011.00734.x
Lima, F.R. and Wethey, D. (2012) Three decades of high-resolution coastal sea surface temperatures reveal more than warming Nature Communications 2704 DoI: 10.1038/ncomms1713 |
Macreadie, P.I., Bishop, M.J. and Booth, D.J. (2011) Implications of climate change for macrophytic rafts and their hitchhikers. Marine Ecology Progress Series 443: 285–292. doi: 10.3354/meps09529
McKinley, A.C., Miskiewicz, A., Taylor, M.D., and Johnston, E.L. (2011). Strong links between metal contamination, habitat modification and estuarine larval fish distributions. Environmental Pollution 159, 1499-1509.
Madin, E.M.P., Ban, N.C., Doubleday, Z.A., Holmes, T.H., Pecl, G. and Smith, F. (2012) Socio-economic and management implications of range-shifting species in marine systems . Global Environmental Change 22: 137–146
Rowling, K., Hegarty, A. and M, Ives. (eds.) (2010) Status of Fisheries Resources in NSW 2008/09.  Industry and Investment NSW, Cronulla 392pp.
Scanes, P., Coade, G., Doherty, M. and Hill, R. (2007). Evaluation of the utility of water quality based indicators of estuarine lagoon condition in NSW, Australia. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 74: 306-319

Previous 2009 refs (not all included in text above):
Annesse, D. and Kingsford, M.J. (2005) Distribution, movements and diet of nocturnal fishes on temperate reefs. Environmental Biology of Fishes 72:  161-174.
Biro, P.A. and J.R. Post. (2008)  Rapid depletion of genotypes with fast growth and bold personality traits from harvested fish populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences US. 105: 2919-2922
Booth, D.J. and Figueira, W.F. (2008) Resistance and Buffer Capacity. In Sven Erik Jørgensen and Brian D. Faith (Editor-in-Chief), Population Dynamics. Vol. [4] of Encyclopedia of Ecology, 5 vols. pp. [3004-3009] Oxford: Elsevier.
Booth, D.J., Figueira, W.F., Gregson, M.A., Brown, L. and Beretta, G. (2007) Occurrence of tropical fishes in temperate southeastern Australia: role of the East Australian Current. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 72: 102-114 doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2006.10.003.
Brierley, A.S. and Kingsford, M.J. (2009) Impacts of Climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems. Current Biology 19: R602-R614.
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